The Argument from Change

1. If there is nothing outside the material universe, then there is nothing that can cause the material universe to change.
2. The material universe does undergo change.
3. Therefore, there must be something in addition to the material universe.
4. But the material universe is the sum total of all matter, space, and time. These three depend on each other.
5. Therefore, the cause of all change is outside matter, space, and time. It is not a changing thing, but is the unchanging Source of change.